The historical development of the doctrine of creation is reviewed and this forms the basis for a more detailed investigation of particularly influential modern constructions of the doctrine. The implications of these differing approaches are explored within a wider theological context, with particular attention being played to the concepts of divine agency and the manner of God’s action in creation. This leads to an examination of differing approaches to the engagement between modern science and the Christian doctrine of creation. The implications of the doctrine of creation are explored in relation to contemporary ethical issues relating to the environment.